All DayLong Pacifier Use and Intelligence Quotient in Childhood: A Birth Cohort Study

Methods: Data from 3532 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed. Children were recruited and assessed at birth and followed up at 3 months, and 1, 2, 4, and 6 years. Data on pacifier use duration and intensity were obtained via interviews with mothers in all six follow‐up visits. IQ was estimated at 6 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and standardized for the analyses. Crude and adjusted coefficients were calculated (linear regression) for all the data collected in follow‐up assessments for pacifier use.
Conclusions: We found a strong association between intense pacifier use up to 4 years of age and lower IQ at 6 years. A dose‐response gradient was observed, with greater IQ deficits in children who used a ADL pacifier for longer durations. The mechanisms underlying this association need to be clarified. One hypothesis is that children using a pacifier, especially those who use it more intensely, are less stimulated.
Breastfeeding: A Key Investment in Human Capital

An article “Exclusive Breastfeeding, Child Mortality, and Economic Cost in Sub-Saharan Africa” and its Commentary, “Breastfeeding: A Key Investment in Human Capital” in the March Issue of Pediatrics are well worth reading.

Despite improvements over time, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of “under-5 mortality” in the world (75.8 per 1000 live births in 2019) and persistently high child stunting (33% in 2019). High under-5 mortality and stunting, along with other factors, contribute to poor human capital outcomes and lost economic productivity. Breastfeeding is the child’s first immunization and the single most important life-saving intervention for young children and, by implication, is likely to have a big impact on productivity and economic growth.

Researchers added to the literature by linking breastfeeding to economic growth at the country level in Africa. Evidence has revealed that increased exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates are significantly associated with a decreased risk for under 5-yearchild mortality and with decreased cumulative non-health gross domestic product loss (TCNHGDPL). If exclusive breastfeeding prevalence improved by 10%, the related TCNHGDPL) would save ~1 billion.

If you would like more information on these articles, contact

Article Abstract:

Comment Abstract:
Birth & Beyond App Now Available on Google Play & the Apple App Store 

The smartphone app Birth & Beyond is now available in an Android version by Global Health Media. The app provides mothers, fathers, and other caregivers with easy access to their videos on labor, birth, breastfeeding, and the first two years after birth. The iPhone version has been well received, and the Android version will now be able to reach many more users in Africa, Asia and South America. It is now available in 26 languages.

For more information about the app visit
California Women’s Law Center Releases Updated “ABC’s of Breastfeeding” Report Card for L.A. County School Districts

This recently published report demonstrates a widespread improvement among majority of districts. The report card illustrates an assessment of breastfeeding policy impacting female employees and students in education and evaluates school districts’ compliance with California’s Title IX notification mandates. This evaluation is outside San Diego County, however, can provide relative policy framework and help to guide improvements in breastfeeding equity throughout all local regions.

Visit the California Women’s Law Center website HERE

View the “ABC’s of Breastfeeding” Report Card HERE
COVID-19 Vaccines and Pregnancy: A Summary from British magazine “The Scientist”.
“Good Bacteria” In Breast Milk Changes Over Time

The cocktail of beneficial bacteria passed from mother to infant through breast milk changes significantly over time and could act like a daily booster shot for infant immunity and metabolism. The research, conducted by scientists from Montreal and Guatemala and published in Frontiers in Microbiology, has important implications for infant development and health.
“Studying microbiomes of diverse communities is important in order to understand the variation present in humans,” says co-author Kristine Koski, an Associate Professor in the School of Human Nutrition at McGill. “Most human milk microbiome studies have been conducted with mothers from high income countries, generating an incomplete picture of the important bacteria passed to infants during early development.”
MCN Article Highlights Differences in Breastfeeding Intentions and Need to Further Evaluate Disparities

The journal Maternal & Child Nutrition published an article titled "Meeting breastfeeding intentions differ by race/ethnicity, Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study‐2.

The study reviewed how prenatal breastfeeding intentions impact breastfeeding practices in a WIC cohort. Hispanic and non‐Hispanic Black women were less likely to meet their longer breastfeeding intentions than non‐Hispanic White women. Understanding how racism, bias and discrimination contribute to women not meeting their breastfeeding intentions may help efforts to reduce breastfeeding disparities. It is imperative that a more thorough assessment of the underlying factors that contribute to the differential experiences non‐Hispanic Black women and Hispanic women face is an immediate need.
Momnibus Act of 2021

Now it’s time for all of us to gather together and let our voices be heard. The Black Maternal Health Momnibus Act of 2021 builds on existing legislation to comprehensively address every dimension of the maternal health crisis in America.
In supporting this bill, you can join us in improving health outcomes by effecting policy change at the federal level. If you are looking to take action on this urgent issue, you can get involved by:
  • Reaching out to your Members of Congress in the House of Representatives and the Senate to make your voice heard about why this issue matters to you. You can look up your Representative in the U.S. House of Representatives here, and you can find information about your Senators here
  • Spreading the word on social media: sample posts can be found here.
  • Joining the efforts of community-based organizations who are leading critical initiatives where you live.
  • Staying informed about Momnibus updates by following the Black Maternal Health Caucus on Twitter.
Promoting and Protecting Human Milk and Breastfeeding in a COVID-19 World

This excellent report was product of a Roundtable discussion convened and facilitated by Medela AG, held on the 24th July, 2020 to initiate a global dialogue on the impact of COVID-19 on breastfeeding and human milk practices. Perspectives from key stakeholder groups, including lactation researchers, virologists, neonatologists, pediatricians, midwives, and nursing professionals were sought to identify and highlight key issues.
Virtual Workshop Series on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion, with the USLCA

The United States Lactation Consultant Association is hosting a virtual workshop titled "Equity-Mindedness Professional Learning SeriesWednesday, March 24, through Friday, March 26, from 10:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m. EST daily.

The three-day workshop includes an examination of individual, institutional, and systemic influences in relation to social injustice. Participants will learn more about their own socialization and social identities along with the conscious and unconscious prejudices and biases they may hold. The first session is free to all attendees, and the entire workshop is free for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color attendees.
Our 2021 Breastfeeding Webinar Series continues this month with Breastfeeding: What is a Father to Do?

Presented by Tim Johnson, CLE, DAD, this webinar will explore the different ways fathers can get more involved in the exciting adventure of breastfeeding!

This webinar takes place Saturday, March 27, 2021, 10 AM via Zoom.

Coming up in April, speaker Liz Brooks, JD, IBCLC, FILCA presents
Electronic Ethics! Avoid Getting Shocked When Texting
and Cloud-Based Sharing

You can register for these free webinars below!
The San Diego Breastfeeding Center is currently looking for a
part-time IBCLC!

Major Areas of Responsibility: As a Lactation Consultant, you will be working side by side with the clients and their children, and be an integral part of the breast/chestfeeding and parenting cycle.

Job Requirements include, but are not limited to: Minimum of one (1) year of clinical experience including breast/chestfeeding parent and newborn care and counseling (can include clinical hours while becoming an IBCLC), Certification from and good-standing with the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners, Graduate of an accredited School of Nursing with current nursing license in good standing (preferred).

Job Hours: 2-3 days/week, 5-7 hours/day. Salary discussed upon request.

To apply for the position, please send cover letter and resume to:
Robin Kaplan, Owner SDBFC at

Full description at:
Originally Published February 2021

"Barriers to Breastfeeding: Supporting Initiation and Continuation of Breastfeeding" was developed by the Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women and the Breastfeeding Expert Work Group.
The Committee Opinion describes hospital and societal barriers to breastfeeding, as well as challenges faced by specific populations.

"Breastfeeding Challenges" was developed by the Breastfeeding Expert Work Group and the Committee on Obstetric Practice. The Committee Opinion includes information on engorgement, persistent pain, low milk supply and galactogogues, mastitis, special concerns for preterm and early-term infants, medication use, guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use disorder, and palpable breast mass.
2021 NBCC Announcement for Grassroots Worker Awards

The  2021 National Breastfeeding Conference & Convening (NBCC) will be held online from Wednesday, June 9, to Friday, June 11, 2021. We are thrilled for this year's online opportunity to connect with participants from a diversity of locations and backgrounds. The U.S. Breastfeeding Committee is pleased to invite eligible and interested maternal and child health grassroots workers to apply via three award categories.  Award recipients will receive a free full-access registration to the online conference, promotion of their work, and more! To learn about the application and review process, visit the NBCC website and explore past NBCC awardees. The deadline to apply is Sunday, March 21, 2021, at 11:59 pm PT.

Please share this announcement widely with your networks! Contact with any questions.

Online retailer, Amazon, has a great feature that allows YOU to donate a portion of your shopping to a charity of your choice --
including the San Diego Breastfeeding Coalition!

Through a feature called AmazonSmile, 0.5% of all eligible purchases made in the app and online will be donated at no additional cost to you! This is a great opportunity to give to a great cause!

Sign up for AmazonSmile TODAY!
(Journalist, Author, & Breastfeeding Activist)
Looking for a Village?
SDCBC 2021 Breastfeeding Resource Guide Now Available!

They say it takes a whole village to raise a child. I am a first generation immigrant mom with no extended family within five-hour direct flights from my city, but still, I have my village—the local parenting support groups.

The first time I experienced the power of a support group, my first child had just turned six months old and I had been back at work for three months. That was a hard time. I chose to breastfeed, but the company refused to provide lactation accommodations that were required by California law.

I went to a breastfeeding support group and complained to other moms. I was looking for nothing more than a moral support. To my surprise, I got much more than encouraging words—the group even put me in touch with pro bono lawyers who settled my case.

Without this resource from the breastfeeding support group, I could never have imagined standing up against my abusive employer. After that, I continued to participate in different parenting support groups. Parenting support groups are my village. It may not be the village with mothers doing the washing or kneading bread side-by-side, but certainly a village with like-minded mothers who get together and fight for each other’s families: maternal justice; paid family leave; affordable childcare; early education.

When a teacher at our local Chinese school used candy and soda as rewards, we obtained a student wellness policy from the school district and communicated with the school as a group. When a white kid at a community park told my child “Trump will kick you out of America,” I cried—not alone, but with moms in my village. And then we guaranteed our children, as a group, that we would build a better America for them.

I like my village. The moms here exist for each other. I knew a mother who organized protests against the unreasonable price of EpiPen while her own insurance fully covered the medication, and the price increase wouldn’t affect her family a bit. She was fighting for others in her village.

Do you have a village? Leave a message and let us know. Are you looking for a village? The SDCBC 2021 Resource Guide is now available and it is a pretty good place to start. 
Become an SDCBC Member in 2021!
We offer different levels of membership with
special benefits to thank you for your generous support!


Let’s continue to work together to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. As always, please let us know if you have questions or ideas for the Coalition as we continue to adapt during this unique time. 


San Diego County Breastfeeding Coalition Board of Directors

Copyright © 2021 San Diego County Breastfeeding Coalition, All rights reserved.

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