New research and information about child injury prevention.
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Safekids Aotearoa Information Service Bulletin                    January 2015


Keeping you up to date with new research and information about child injury prevention.

Happy New Year to all our regular readers and welcome to our new subscribers. 

We've divided the bulletin into four sections:

New research, books, articles etc

Where available, we've included a link to the full text online. If there's something you are interested in that's not available to your or your organisation online, please contact your local public or corporate library to access items.



Carlson, Jordan A et al. Built environment characteristics and parent active transportation are associated with active travel to school in youth age 12-15.  British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48.22 (Dec 2014), 2014. 1634.
Purpose To investigate the relation of factors from multiple levels of ecological models (ie, individual, interpersonal and environmental) to active travel to/from school in an observational study of young adolescents.
Link to DOI



Oxley, James A.; Cheng, June. Dog bites, treatment and prevention in New Zealand [letter]. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 127.1406 (Nov 28, 2014):, 2014. 93-94.



Fuentes, S et al. Severe esophageal injuries caused by accidental button battery ingestion in children. J. Emerg. Trauma Shock, 7, 2014. 316-321.
INTRODUCTION: Button batteries represent a low percentage of all foreign bodies swallowed by children and esophageal location is even less frequent. However, these cases are more likely to develop severe injuries. The aim of this essay is to report three cases treated in our institution and review previous reports. 
Link to DOI



Yanchara, Natalie L.; Julian B. Young; Donald B. Langillec. Knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint use in Nova Scotia: Phase II. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 74, January 2015, 2015. Pages 150–156
Abstract: To examine changes to knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint (CMVR) use in Nova Scotia after the implementation of stricter car seat and new booster seat (BS) legislation in 2007.
Link to DOI



Simpson, J. et al. Child poverty monitor 2014 : technical report. Dunedin: The Service, 2014. 126 p.
Abstract: This Technical Report provides data on a set of indicators that assess aspects of child poverty in New Zealand and their implications for child wellbeing.
Link to PDF


Klin, B., et al. Abdominal injuries following bicycle-related blunt abdominal trauma in children. Minerva Pediatrica, 2014
PURPOSE: To confirm our clinical impression that intra--abdominal handlebar injuries are progressively increasing in number and severity in the latest years.
Link to web location

Austroads. Low cost interventions to encourage cycling: selected case studies. Austroads, 2014. 56 p.
Abstract: This report contains 15 case studies showcasing low cost interventions that have successfully encouraged cycling in Australia and New Zealand. The National Cycling Strategy aims to double the number of Australians who ride a bicycle. Engineers and behaviour change specialists are implementing a range of innovative low-cost infrastructure treatments and encouragement strategies which aim to
encourage more people to use active transport modes.
Link to web location

Elwell, S.; Kulp, H,; McCue, J. Creating a comprehensive bicycle safety program. J. Trauma Nurs, 21, 2014. 309-313.
Abstract: Trauma centers must play a role in injury prevention. Pediatric trauma centers have the ability to create injury prevention programs targeting all children. After analyzing trauma registry data, the authors determined that bicycle injuries are a significant mechanism of injury in children and developed strategies aimed at preventing such injuries. Their comprehensive bicycle safety program is targeted to various ages and learning styles and aims to increase bicycle safety and helmet use among children in the region. 
Link to DOI



TV One. One Seven Sharp 8 December 2014 [driveways]. 2014. 1 DVD: 7:01 minutes
Contents: Mike Hosking mentions that an 18 month old girl, who was run over by a car in a South Auckland driveway, has passed away. Toni Street points out that on average five children are run over in driveways annually in NZ. Starship children's clinical director Dr Mike Shepherd states that NZ is experiencing an 'epidemic' of driveway related car incidents that leave children injured or dead. Tim Wilson talks to a parent who sits in a car with a number of children sitting behind it to see exactly how many children can be seen out the back. 
Item Number: 10334

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World Health Organization. Global report on drowning : preventing a leading killer. Geneva : World Health Organization, 2014. 59 p.
Introduction: Drowning is a serious and neglected public health threat claiming the lives of 372 000 people a year world wide. More than 90% of these deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. This death toll is almost two thirds that of malnutrition and well over half that of malaria - but unlike these public health challenges, there are no broad prevention efforts that target drowning. 
Link to report

World Health Organization. Global report on drowning : key facts [infographic]. Geneva : World Health Organization, 2014. 2 p.
Summary: Key facts and figures about drowning around the world. Proposes 6 preventative actions.
Link to infographic



Office of the Children’s Commissioner et al. Health and wellbeing indicators : introduction : Hospital admissions and mortality with a social gradient. [Dunedin : University of Otago’s NZ Child and Youth Epidemiology Service], 2014. p. 1-14.
Abstract: This Technical Report focuses on a number of child health outcomes which have a social gradient. These conditions were selected because they have a much higher prevalence in children living in the most socioeconomically deprived areas, and because it was thought they might respond relatively quickly (e.g. months to small number of years) to changing economic conditions. Monitoring such health indicators is entirely appropriate, as they are the early signs of the consequences of children living in poverty. [From website] 
Link to report

Office of the Children’s Commissioner et al. Infant mortality and sudden unexpected death in infancy. [Dunedin : University of Otago’s NZ Child and Youth Epidemiology Service], 2014. p 15-29.
Abstract: Discusses infant mortality, defined as the death of a child before his or her first birthday. This indicator is widely used as a measure of the health of a country. 
Link to report



Morton, Susan M.B. et al. Growing up in New Zealand : residential mobility report 1 : moving house in the first 1000 days. Auckland: Growing Up in New Zealand, 2014. 55 p.
This report focusses on the residential mobility of the cohort families during the first two years of their children’s lives. The topic of residential mobility was chosen because it was evident from the early work that Growing Up in New Zealand has provided on defining vulnerability (see Vulnerability Report 1, 2014) that residential mobility for families with young children in New Zealand was very common.
Link to report



Injury Prevention Aotearoa. Annual report 2013-14. Wellington : Injury Prevention Aotearoa,
2014. 1 v.
Item Number: 10308

Ameratunga, S; Abel, S; Tin Tin, S et al. Children admitted to hospital following unintentional injury: perspectives of health service providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 2010. p. 333.
Background: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalisation among New Zealand children, with indigenous Maori and ethnic minority Pacific children significantly over represented in these statistics. International research has shown that many children hospitalised for injury, as well as their families experience high levels of stress, and ethnic disparities in the quality of trauma care are not uncommon. The research on which this paper is based sought to identify key issues and concerns for New Zealand's multi-ethnic community following hospitalisation for childhood injury in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of trauma services. This paper reports on service providers' perspectives complementing previously published research on the experiences of families of injured children.
Link to web location

D'Souza, A.; Blakely, T.; Woodward, A. The effect of eradicating poverty on unintentional injury mortality in New Zealand: a childhood cohort study with counterfactual modelling. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 2008. 899-904
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of household income on unintentional injury mortality in children and to model the potential impact of eradicating income poverty as an injury prevention strategy.
Link to PDF

Orton, E. et al. Persistence of health inequalities in childhood injury in the UK; a population-based cohort study of children under 5. PLoS One, 2014; 9: e111631., 2014.
Background: Injury is a significant cause of childhood death and can result in substantial long-term disability. Injuries are more common in children from socio-economically deprived families, contributing to health inequalities between the most and least affluent. However, little is known about how the relationship between injuries and deprivation has changed over time in the UK.
Link to web location

Injury Prevention Aotearoa. Injury dashboard. 2014. 
Summary: Injury Prevention Aotearoa have collected statistics from a variety of mostly public sources to create a number of graphical dashboards - from general overviews of fatal and non-fatal injuries, through to a number of specific focus areas. These provide a simple visual overview of the injury sector at a given point in time. 
Link to Dashboard

Brussoni, Mariana et al. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion? Injury Prevention, Online First 22 December 2014, 2014.
Abstract: To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. 
Link to DOI



Brown, J. C.; Otjen, J. P.; Drugas, G. T. Pediatric magnet ingestions: the dark side of the force. Am. J. Surg, 207, 2014. 754-9; discussion 759.
BACKGROUND: Pediatric magnet ingestions are increasing. Commercial availability of rare-earth magnets poses a serious health risk. This study defines incidence, characteristics, and management of ingestions over time.
Link to DOI



Eid, H.O.; Abu-Zidan, F.M. Pedestrian injuries-related deaths: a global evaluation. World J. Surg., 2014; ePub, 2014.
Abstract: Pedestrians are vulnerable road users who are at risk of injuries and death on the roads. We aimed to define factors affecting pedestrian injuries-related deaths worldwide and to give recommendations regarding their prevention priorities.
Link to DOI

Morrongiello, Barbara A et al. Innovations in using virtual reality to study how children cross streets in traffic: evidence for evasive action skills. Injury Prevention, 2015. Online first 6 January 2015.
Purpose: Children in middle childhood are at an increased risk for injury in pedestrian environments. This study examined whether they are capable of showing evasive action (ie, adjusting crossing speed) to avoid injury when crossing streets.
Link to web location



Williams, A. F. et al.; On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) fatalities in the United States. J. Saf. Res., 2014; 50, 2014. 117-123.
Background: The study was designed to describe the characteristics of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) rider fatalities and fatal crashes involving ATVs that occur on public roads.
Link to DOI

Jennissen, Charles A. et al. The Safety Tips for ATV Riders (STARs) programme" short-term impact of a school-based educational intervention. Injury Prevention, Online First 28 November 2014, 2014.
Background: Since 1985, one-third of all US all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries and one-quarter of deaths involved victims <16 years of age. ATV safety education of youth could help reduce these tragedies. 
Link to DOI

Denning, G M et al. Age-based risk factors for pediatric ATV-related fatalities. Pediatrics, Online First 24 November 2014., 2014.
OBJECTIVES: To compare and contrast characteristics and determinants of fatal all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes among pediatric age groups.
Link to DOI



Center for Injury Research and Prevention. Driving Change in Canada: #PracticeSafeText! [blog post]. November 24, 2014, 2014.
Summary: Discusses a Parachute (Canada) campaign on teen driving. Outlines the elements of a successful campaign. "What Parachute was able to achieve in such a short time in building a movement is amazing and shows what can be done through network mobilization, collective action and national organization.  Learn from their experience launching National Teen Driver Safety Week in Canada and how #PracticeSafeText! went viral." 
Link to blog post

Making road safety pay: building a safe road transport system for Britain. s.l. : Ageas, 2015.
Abstract: The Road Safety Foundation in Great Britain has released a report that provides ideas for improving road safety by examining not just road infrastructure, but also driver behavior and safety features on vehicles. 
Link to PDF



Hutchison, B. L.; Rea, C.; Stewart, A. W. et al. Sudden unexpected infant death in Auckland : a retrospective case review. Acta Paediatrica, 100 (8), 2011. 1108-12.
AIM:To review autopsy reports of all SUDI deaths in the Auckland region, New Zealand, from October 2000 to December 2009.
Link to DOI

Hayman R. M.; McDonald, G.; Baker, N. J.; Mitchell, E. A.; Dalziel, S. R. Infant suffocation in place of sleep: New Zealand national data 2002-2009. Arch. Dis. Child., 2014; ePub, 2014.
Background: Accidental suffocation during sleep, leading to death, has been described as due to overlay or wedging of infants, particularly in a bed-sharing situation. Bed sharing is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome but the mechanism of death is not clearly defined. Accidental suffocation may be one such mechanism.
Link to web location

NZ Mortality Review Data Group. NZ Child and Youth Mortality Review Committee 9th Data Report 2008 – 2012. Dunedin: University of Otago, 2013.
Abstract: This is the 9th Data Report released by the CYMRC. It predominantly reports on data from 2008 to 2012, with some tables and figures for 2002-2012, and some for the time period 1979-2012. These data are from the Mortality Review Database, which contains information on all deaths in children and young people aged 28 days to 24 years who died in New Zealand from 2002 to the present.
LInk to PDF

Sheehan K. M. et al. How reliable are SIDS rates? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(10), 2005. 1082-83.
Abstract: There is increasing concern with using SIDS as a diagnosis, especially where the postmortem examination reveals additional findings that may be contributory to the death exclusion. This report shows how varying the criteria for a diagnosis of SIDS significantly alters the SIDS rate in Ireland. 
Link to web location

Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K. et al. Trends in infant bedding use: National Infant Sleep Position Study, 1993–2010. Pediatrics, 135 (1) 1 January 2015 : 10 -17
BACKGROUND: Use of potentially hazardous bedding, as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (eg, pillows, quilts, comforters, loose bedding), is a modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome and unintentional sleep-related suffocation. The proportion of US infants sleeping with these types of bedding is unknown.
Link to web location

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Biroscak, B. J. et al. Applying systems science to evaluate a community-based social marketing innovation: A case study. Social Marketing Quarterly, 20(4), 2014. 247-267
Abstract: In the United States, community coalitions are an important part of the public health milieu, and thus, subject to many of the same external pressures as other organizations—including changes in required strategic orientation. Many funding agencies have shifted their funding agenda from program development to policy change. Thus, the Florida Prevention Research Center created the Community-Based Prevention Marketing (CBPM) for Policy Development framework to teach community coalitions how to apply social marketing to policy change. The research reported here was designed to explicate the framework’s theory of change. We describe and demonstrate a hybrid evaluation approach: utilization-focused developmental evaluation. The research question was “What are the linkages and connections among CBPM inputs, activities, immediate outcomes, intermediate outcomes, and ultimate impacts?”  
Link to DOI



Huang, Patty. Webinar on safety in children with special health care needs. Center for Injury Research and Prevention, 2014.
Summary: Patty Huang, MD presented a webinar on safety in children with special health care needs (CSHCN), hosted by the Injury and Violence Prevention and CYSHCN programs of the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. In it, she describes key factors that place these children at risk for unintentional injuries and reviews strategies for injury prevention that families of CSHCN should know. Topics include elopement (wandering), child passenger safety, and teen driving.
Link to web page



Statistics New Zealand. Serious injury outcome indicators for children: 2000–13. Wellington, Statistics New Zealand: 2014. 25 p.
Abstract: This report presents annual numbers and rates for serious injury outcomes in New Zealand, through a set of indicators for fatal and non-fatal injuries. This report, which presents trends for children aged 0–14, uses national administrative datasets to provide the most robust and reliable measures of serious injury outcomes currently available for New Zealand.
Link to report



Anderst J.; Moffatt M. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents. Pediatr. Ann., 2014; 43, 12014. e260-e265.
Abstract: Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. 
Link to DOI



Shenoi, Rohit P; Levine, Ned; Jones, Jennifer L et al. Spatial analysis of paediatric swimming pool submersions by housing type. Injury Prevention, Online First 9 January 2015, 2015.
Abstract: Objective Drowning is a major cause of unintentional childhood death. The relationship between childhood swimming pool submersions, neighbourhood sociodemographics, housing type and swimming pool location was examined in Harris County, Texas.
Link to web location



Morrongiello, Barbara A. et al. Don’t touch the gadget because it’s hot! Mothers’ and children’s behavior in the presence of a contrived hazard at home: implications for supervising children.  J. Pediatr. Psychol., 40 (January/February), 2015. 85-95
Objective: This study compared boys’ with girls’ hazard-directed behaviors at home when the mother was present and absent from the room. 
Link to DOI 



Basch, C. H.; Rajan, S. Marketing strategies and warning labels on children's toothpaste. J. Dent. Hyg., 88, 2014. 316-319
PURPOSE: The overconsumption of toothpaste has negative consequences, particularly for children. This study's objectives were to describe misleading marketing strategies used in selling children's fluoridated toothpaste and identify warning label characteristics. 
Link to abstract


Lavoie, M. et al.; Active and safe transportation of elementary-school students: comparative analysis of the risks of injury associated with children travelling by car, walking and cycling between home and school. Chronic Dis. Inj. Can., 34, 2014. 195-202 
INTRODUCTION: Elementary school active transportation programs aim to address physical inactivity in children by prompting a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling among children living a distance from school conducive to walking or cycling. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the risk of injury related to walking, cycling and travelling by car between home and school among elementary-school students in the Montréal area and to evaluate the impact on number of injuries of a modal shift from travel by car to walking or cycling. 
Link to PDF

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New journals and magazines received


Safekids Aotearoa Information Service receives a number of hard copy journals. You are welcome to come and read them. Recent arrivals include:

Hazards (VISU)
LG News
Starters & Strategies

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New Safekids publications and resources

Most Safekids publications are on the Safekids website They're also held by the Information Service and, where available, you can  request hard copies using this order form. 


Energizer;; Safekids Aotearoa
The Battery Controlled : a demonstration plan on button battery child injury for practitioners. Auckland : Safekids Aotearoa, 2014. 1 Kit.
A4 Size PVC folder that contains a copy of the booklet “Button batteries: a demonstration plan for practitioners", a Babysitter checklist, 100 DLE pamphlets, and 3 posters.  It also contains all the equipment a practitioner will need to carry out a demonstration of the caustic effects of button batteries. The equipment includes scissors, plastic gloves, petri dishes, sharpie, post-it notes, and 2 packs of button batteries.  This is a resource for practitioners and others running injury prevention programmes.
Item Number: 10363



Safekids Aotearoa, Tamariki Haumaru o Aotearoa.
He Haumaru ake te tatari kia tae tou roa ki te 148cm.  [Booster seat height chart pamphlet].
Auckland, Safekids Aotearoa: 2014.
DLE leaflet featuring the cartoon character 'Safe T Sam". This is a translation into Maori of the "It's safer to wait 'til you're 148 cms" pamphlet. In November 2013 it became the law that children under 7 years must use a child restraint while travelling in a vehicle. However, height is a better measure. Until children are 148 cm tall, an adult safety belt may not protect them properly. The leaflet shows how to take the 5-step test to see if a child needs to be in a child restraint or booster seat.
Item Number: 10052

Safekids Aotearoa, Tamariki Haumaru o Aotearoa
He Haumaru ake te tatari kia tae tou roa ki te 148cm [Booster seat height chart]. Auckland, Safekids Aotearoa: 2014.
This is a translation into Maori of the Safe T Sam height chart. The chart is is 150 cm high and folds to an A4 size. It features the cartoon 'Safe T Sam" and the height of 148 cm which is the height that children should graduate to using an adult seat belt without a booster.  The message is "Measure your kids against Safe T Sam's height chart. If they're under 148 cm, they need to be in a booster seat to get the full safety benefits of an adult seat belt." It also features '4 stages for kids' (which describes in simple diagrammatic form the: 'infant' (rear facing), 'toddler' (capsule), 'booster' and 'safety belt' stages. Item Number: 10360




Safekids Aotearoa.
Playground safety investigation for a safe summer. Auckland : Safekids Aotearoa, 2014. 2 p.
This activity is part of the 2014/2015 falls prevention campaign. It is designed to involve children in evaluation the safety of local playgrounds. Item Number: 10361

Safekids Aotearoa
Playground safety investigation for a safe summer : teacher background. Auckland : Safekids Aotearoa, 2014. 2 p.
This activity is part of the 2014/2015 falls prevention campaign. It is designed to involve children in evaluation the safety of local playgrounds. Item Number: 10362

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Contact Us

Safekids Aotearoa Information Service

5th Floor, Cornwall Complex, 40 Claude Rd, Epsom, Auckland, 1023.
PO Box 26488, Epsom, Auckland, 1344, New Zealand

Opening Hours: Monday – Friday 8.30am – 4pm.


Contact the Information Specialist, Helena Westwick

T: (09) 631 0724
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ISSN 2382-1051
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